Elements in Steel

Aluminium (Al) : Aluminium is added to steel as a deoxidizer. Added to control grain size aluminum can control austenite grain growth in reheated steels
Boron (B) : Boron is an alloying element added to steel to aid heat treatment through enhancement hardenability. Sometimes added to austenitic stainless steel grades to improve its high temperature strength.
Carbon (C) : Carbon is the most important element in the majority of steel, affecting hardness and strength by heat treatment. The ductility and Weldability decreases with increasing carbon content.
Cobalt (Co) : Cobalt can be used up to 10% content in some high speed steels. It becomes radioactive when exposed to nuclear radiation therefore for radioactive applications it must not be present in steel.
Copper (Cu) : Copper can be present in stainless steels for precipitation hardening properties. Used in “weathering” steels.
Chromium (Cr) : Chromium is added to steel to increase corrosion and oxidation resistance. It also increases hardenability and combined with high carbon improves wear and abrasion resistance.
Iron (Fe) : Iron is the base metal in steel, combining with other alloying elements to form all steel types. It is relatively soft and weak in its pure form.
Lead (Pb) : Lead is added to improve Machinability.
Manganese (Mn) : Manganese contributes to strength and hardness with variable carbon content. It is an austenite forming element in some steels and has a significant effect on hardenability
Molybdenum (Mo) : Molybdenum is added to nickel chrome alloy steels to improve strength and hardness and also in chromium nickel austenitic steels it improves corrosion resistance. Molybdenum is used in some high speed steel grades.
Nickel (Ni) : Nickel is an important element which increases hardenability, tensile and impact values of steels. Added to high chromium stainless steels in amounts of over 8% it produces austenitic structures which gives high temperature strengths and resistance to oxidation and corrosion.
Niobium (Nb) : Niobium stabilizes carbon in the same way as titanium and strengthens steels for high temperature service.
Nitrogen (N) : Nitrogen is added to stainless steel to improve the austenitic stability with increased yield strength.
Phosphorous (P) : Phosphorous is normally controlled to low levels but higher phosphorous can be used to improve Machinability.
Selenium (Se) : Selenium is added to steel to improve Machinability.
Silicon (Si) : Silicon is a principal deoxidizers in steel, used in silicon manganese, corrosion and heat resisting steels.
Sulphur (S) : Sulphur is often added to improve Machinability, but does decrease ductility and notch impact toughness.
Tantalum (Ta) : Tantalum is a refractory metal which is highly corrosion resistant. It is part of the refractory metals group, which are widely used as minor components in alloys and precipitation hardening stainless steels.
Titanium (Ti) : Titanium is commonly added to steel for carbide stabilization, combining with carbon to form titanium carbides.
Tungsten (W) : Tungsten is a major element in high speed and some tool steels. In the heat treated condition it retains hardness at elevated temperatures and is particularly useful for cutting tools.
Vanadium (V) : Vanadium helps improve fatigue stress and wear resistance when used with other alloying elements.
Zirconium (Zr) : Zirconium can be added to high strength low alloy steels, affecting inclusion improvement, giving toughness and ductility in bending modes.

Bombay Sales Corporation can offer help and advice on steel specifications, we recommend contacting a heat treatment specialist for full consultation on hardening processes available for individual specifications.

Heat treatment will alter the physical and mechanical properties of steel through a controlled process of heating and cooling.

Popular heat treatment processes include the following:

  • Hardening & Tempering
  • Case Hardening
  • Martempering
  • Induction Hardening
  • Through Hardening
  • Nitriding
  • Precipitation Hardening
  • Vacuum Hardening

Steel specifications are often prefixed with initials. This can indicate the originating country of the grade.

AS Australia ONORM Austria
NBN Belgium BDS China
GB Canada CSA Slovak/Czech Republic
CSN Finland AFNOR France
DIN Germany BS United Kingdom
MSZ Hungary UNI Italy
JIS Japan NS Norway
PN Poland STAS Romania
GOST Russia Russia Sweden
UNE Spain SNV / VSM Switzerland
AISI, AMS, ASME, SAE, UNS United States EN (Euronorm) European

Enhance your quality and competitiveness by conducting the necessary testing and obtaining certification. we can help you navigate through the complex and challenging process. Our extensive capabilities in both safety and performance testing means you can get everything you need under one roof.


TENSION TEST : tensile testing is performed to determine the yield strength, tensile strength, and elongation of steel sheet.
BENDING TEST : Bending test is performed to determine the ductility of steel sheet
CARBON (C) : Carbon is the most important element in the majority of steel, affecting hardness and strength by heat treatment. The ductility and Weldability decreases with increasing carbon content.
HARDNESS TEST : Hardness of steel sheet is closely related to other properties like strength, wear resistance, and workability. Rockwell & Cupping Hardness test is used for measuring the hardness of cold-rolled steel sheet.
CAMBER TEST : Camber Test is performed on Strip of material 1mt long. It is performed to check the curvature of the material upon the Z-axis.
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